In addition, health and plant health measures can only be imposed to the extent necessary to protect human, animal or plant health on the basis of scientific information. However, governments can introduce OBT rules where necessary to achieve a number of objectives, such as national security or the prevention of deceptive practices. Since the commitments made by governments are different under the two agreements, it is important to know whether a measure is a health or plant health measure or a measure subject to the OBT agreement. WRLC is the Washington Research Library Consortium, which consists of about 13 local libraries (we have a quick loan agreement between this group of institutions). Look for your widest reach here. The growth of international trade has led to a complex and increasingly broad primary law, including international treaties and agreements, national legislation and trade dispute settlement jurisprudence. This research guide focuses primarily on the multilateral trading system managed by the World Trade Organization. It also contains information on regional and bilateral trade agreements, including those involving the United States. Measures relating to environmental protection (with the exception of those mentioned above), consumer protection or animal welfare are not covered by the SPS agreement. However, these concerns are addressed by other WTO agreements (i.e. the OBT agreement or Article XX of the 1994 GATT).
While the SPS agreement allows governments to maintain adequate health and plant health protection, it reduces the potential arbitrariness of decisions and promotes consistent decision-making. It requires that sanitary and plant health measures be applied for purposes other than ensuring food security and animal and plant health. In particular, the agreement clarifies the factors to be taken into account when assessing risk risk. Measures to ensure food security and the protection of animal and plant health should, where possible, be based on the analysis and evaluation of objective and accurate scientific data. This introduction examines the text of the SPS agreement as contained in the final act of Uruguay`s round of multilateral trade negotiations, signed in Marrakech on 15 April 1994. This agreement and other agreements contained in the final act are part of the Treaty establishing the World Trade Organization (WTO) with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as amended (GATT 1994). The WTO has replaced GATT as the umbrella organization for international trade. Although in the 47 years of the previous GATT dispute resolution procedures, only one body has been sought to review health or plant health disputes, ten complaints about the new obligations were formally filed in the first three years of the SPS agreement.